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Forum: Radio Equipment
 Topic: FS:Icom PW-1 1KW Amplifier AND KENWOOD TS-950SDX.
FS:Icom PW-1 1KW Amplifier AND KENWOOD TS-950SDX. [message #1274] Thu, 23 February 2012 17:44
2w0cdz73  is currently offline 2w0cdz73
Messages: 1
Registered: February 2012
Junior Member
Icom PW-1 1KW Amplifier

S/N-02308, this amplifier is in excellent condition! 10/12 meter mod done.
Includes original box, cables and manuals.
Must be a licensed amateur, this will be verified.
Feel free to email with any questions.



KENWOOD TS-950SDX in excellent condition both electronically and cosmetically. Radio is a late production with serial number in the 90 million range. Non-smoker. Operating manual, hand mic, color sales brochures, and Service Manual (on CD) are all included.


  • Attachment: Ken.jpg
    (Size: 39.46KB, Downloaded 722 time(s))

 Topic: Rohn 100ft SS Tower
Rohn 100ft SS Tower [message #214] Fri, 06 November 2009 09:16
Messages: 1
Registered: November 2009
Location: Houston
Junior Member
I have two disassembled Rohn 100 ft towers for sale. Built 09/2004. $5000 each.
 Topic: yaesu ft-411e handheld for sale
yaesu ft-411e handheld for sale [message #180] Thu, 18 September 2008 03:39
tazmaniadevil  is currently offline tazmaniadevil
Messages: 1
Registered: September 2008
Location: stilesville,indiana
Junior Member

make me an offer

 Topic: Nokia N95 8GB @200usd
Nokia N95 8GB @200usd [message #172] Sun, 27 April 2008 12:46
lewmab9  is currently offline lewmab9
Messages: 8
Registered: October 2006
Junior Member mpanyId=02581567





Registered No.02581567

We sell a wide range of products. Nokia , Motorola , Samsung , Sony Ericsson , Nextel , Siemens s. Digital Cameras , Nikon Camera, Canon Camera. Games , Xbox 360 , NIntendo , Play Station 2 , Sony PSP's , GBA. PDA.Pocket pc Tomtom Go 700 , Tomtom Go 600 and Tomtom Go 500 Ipods Nano , Ipod Mini , Ipod Shuffle. Laptops/Notebook.and many more, All our product are brand new,
1. Complete accessories(Well packed and sealed in original company box)
2. Unlocked / sim free.

3. Brand new (original manufacturer) box - no copies
4. All phones have english language asdefault
5. All material (software, manual) - car chargers - home chargers - usb
data cables -holsters/belt clips - wireless headsets(bluetooth) -
leather and non-leather carrying cases - batteries.

If you are interested, forward your questions and enquires to us via
email with your order and shipping details. we give 1 year warranty for
every product sold out to our costumers, our product are company class
1 tested and approved by global standard organization of wireless
industries, Brand new merchandise with complete accessories, extra
and battery.serious buyers should.
Contact us on:


Best Regards,
 Topic: selling gear,
selling gear, [message #143] Tue, 02 October 2007 13:07
blacksheep  is currently offline blacksheep
Messages: 1
Registered: October 2007
Location: midwest
Junior Member
Yaesu FT-847 great condition, 650.00

Ameritron AL-80B 700.OO

Icom-272OH 150.00

Bird meter (43uhf) 215.00

All items are in original packaging with proper paper work, also owned by a non smoker.

Have other stuff and will list later.
 Topic: trans radio
trans radio [message #92] Mon, 18 December 2006 18:43
jokster5982  is currently offline jokster5982
Messages: 2
Registered: December 2006
Junior Member

trans diamond radio model 60 23 upper lower asking 350
 Topic: Kenwood TH-22AT
Kenwood TH-22AT [message #72] Tue, 22 August 2006 13:47
Arben  is currently offline Arben
Messages: 1
Registered: August 2006
Location: Tennessee
Junior Member
I have a Kenwood TH-22AT handy talkie for sell. Please visit for details.

2 GE BASE UNITS [message #71] Mon, 31 July 2006 01:02
MOTOROLA2006  is currently offline MOTOROLA2006
Messages: 1
Registered: July 2006
Junior Member

CHANNEL 1 RX 463.950 TX 468.950 PL 131.8
CHANNEL 2 RX 464.950 TX 469.950 PL 131.8

CHANNEL 1 RX 146.300 TX 147.300 PL 127.3
CHANNEL 2 RX 147.650 TX 148.650 PL 127.3

 Topic: HTX-212 2Meter Radio Shack Mobile
HTX-212 2Meter Radio Shack Mobile [message #4] Wed, 29 December 2004 00:24
n2nys  is currently offline n2nys
Messages: 2
Registered: December 2004
Location: Hyde Park, NY
Junior Member

HTX-212 2Meter Radio Shack Mobile - seller is opting out - busniness matter closed - found use for it in house - sorry - Dave

[Updated on: Fri, 09 September 2005 19:24]

Dave Bogdan
N2NYS (Formally KB2ZUH)
Entertainment Technician &
Computing Advisor
Home & Cell: 845-242-6653
\\\\\\\"God puts us all in each other lives for one reason or another. Some people come into our lives, stay a while, leave footprints on our hearts and we are never, ever the same\\\\\\\"
Forum: Kenwood Mods
 Topic: Kenwood TH-K20A - MARS / CAP TX Modification
Kenwood TH-K20A - MARS / CAP TX Modification [message #1396] Thu, 05 July 2012 01:19
root  is currently offline root
Messages: 140
Registered: December 2004
Senior Member
This modification is provided "as is," and is subject to change without notice. The author makes no warranty of any kind with regard to this modification procedure. The author shall not be liable for any error or for incidental or consequential damage in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this modification procedure.

It is illegal to operate outside the limits of your class license or permits.

Procedure for the Kenwood TH-K20A Mars Mod:

Turn off the transceiver and remove the battery pack.

Remove the antenna, channel selector knob, and volume knob.

Remove the Side Jack Accessory Cover.

Remove the two screws from the bottom of the radio on the back side.

Carefully lift the front panel up from the chassis, starting at the bottom of the radio. Be careful not to damage the speaker wires as you're opening the radio.

Locate and carefully remove the Diode reference D from the TX/RX unit - (see Figure 1).

Assemble the transceiver.

Reset the radio.
Press and Hold the F Key While Turning the Radio On
Release the F Key
Use the Channel Knob to Select Full Reset (FL.RST)
Press F then Press F Key Again to Confirm Reset

Transmitter Operating Range: 142 ~ 151.995MHz

KENWOOD TH-K20A – Full Extended TX Modification

This modification is provided "as is," and is subject to change without notice. The author makes no warranty of any kind with regard to this modification procedure. The author shall not be liable for any error or for incidental or consequential damage in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this modification procedure.

It is illegal to operate outside the limits of your class license or permits. Procedure:

Turn off the transceiver and remove the battery pack.

Remove the antenna, channel selector knob, and volume knob.

Remove the Side Jack Accessory Cover.

Remove the two screws from the bottom of the radio on the back side.

Carefully lift the front panel up from the chassis, starting at the bottom of the radio. Be careful not to damage the speaker wires as you're opening the radio.

Locate and carefully remove both Diodes reference C & D from the TX/RX unit - (see Figure 1).

Assemble the transceiver.

Reset the radio.
Press and Hold the F Key While Turning the Radio On
Release the F Key
Use the Channel Knob to Select Full Reset (FL.RST)
Press F then Press F Key Again to Confirm Reset

Transmitter Operating Range: 136 ~ 173.995MHz

Caution: This modification requires soldering equipment rated for CMOS type circuits. It also requires familiarity with surface mount soldering techniques. If you do not have the proper equipment or knowledge, do not attempt this modification yourself Seek qualified assistance.


Forum: Digital Modes
 Topic: Digital Mode Samples
Digital Mode Samples [message #1251] Sat, 11 February 2012 04:15
root  is currently offline root
Messages: 140
Registered: December 2004
Senior Member
KB9UKD has a great archive of digital modes and their audio files (what they sound like).
 Topic: Packet
Packet [message #378] Sun, 22 May 2011 12:08
W2EVU  is currently offline W2EVU
Messages: 1
Registered: May 2011
Location: Sodus Point, NY
Junior Member
I am looking for a packet program that will work with Windows 7 and a Yeasu FT-897D transceiver. I would prefer a soundcard program, but a TNC program would do.

 Topic: PSK31 Frequencies
PSK31 Frequencies [message #18] Fri, 04 March 2005 00:40
kc2nda  is currently offline kc2nda
Messages: 29
Registered: December 2004
Location: New Paltz
Junior Member
Here is the list of frequencies I have for PSK31 so far:

2 Meters = 145.550 and 145.140
10 Meters = 28.120
15 Meters = 21.070
20 Meters = 14.070.150
30 Meters = 10.142
40 Meters = 7.035
80 Meters = 3.580

If there are any more hot spots, please post them. Thanks.


[Updated on: Mon, 07 March 2005 00:54]

Forum: PIC Microcontrollers
 Topic: Arduino Uno32 Bootloader Reprogramming
Arduino Uno32 Bootloader Reprogramming [message #985] Mon, 05 September 2011 20:29
root  is currently offline root
Messages: 140
Registered: December 2004
Senior Member
Some Ardruino boards were shipped with bad bootloaders. When you try to burn a new program, the programmer will throw an error like this:

avrdude: verifihoneyion error, first mismatch at byte 0x0000
0x0c != 0xff
avrdude: verifihoneyion error; content mismatch

Many people are having these problems with these boards. If you are having these problems you need to burn a new bootloader.

Connect to the Uno32 with a terminal program (like puttytel). Set the baud rate to whatever COM port the Uno32 is connected to and use 115200 for the baud rate. As soon as you connect, type !!! and then you should see something like this:

Explorer stk500V2 by MLS V1.0

Then type ? (question mark)

Bootloader>? CPU stats
Explorer stk500V2 by MLS V1.0
Compiled on = Apr 24 2011
CPU Type = 32MX320F128H
GCC Version = 3.4.4 Microchip MPLAB C Compiler for PIC32 MCUs v1.11(A)-2010050 4
DEVID = 5090A053

You will see the compile date.. This bootloader in this example was bad.

After the new bootloader was burned (file is attached). The problem should disappear. You must cycle the power. If you connect the Uno32 again with a terminal you will see the new compile date.

How do you reprogram the Arduino Uno32 bootloader?

This is a good question. There isn't anything that has a very good documentation for doing this. Some posts may tell you to return the board. If you can't understand the following, then it would be better to send the board back. BUT, this type of thing should really be learned if one isn't sure how to do this.

First the Arduino Uno32 board that was purchased, didn't have any pins installed (soldered) on the board for the ICSP section. You must take solder a 6 pin header to the board in order to use it.. I do not know why they didn't come with it in the first place. You can get header pins from Mouser or Digi-Key.

Then you will need a programmer that will program via the ICSP. A PICkit 2 in this case was used to reprogram the bootloader. A 12V power supply (doesn't need 12V, 9V will probably do just fine) was used to power the Arduino Uno32 board while this was being accomplished. If you don't power the Uno32 board, you will probably be drawing too much current for both the PICKit and the Arduino board. Hooking them in series to program will fail. The PICkit software will throw an error message saying the voltage is too low or wrong as soon as you load the program.

Open the PICkit software while the equipment is hooked up, load the hex file and burn! The Uno32 board needs to be restarted when completed. This should complete the process. If you don't have a PICkit, you can use any other programmer than has an ICSP port.

Hope this helps anyone that is having problems with their Arduino Uno32 boards... It isn't so intuitive and there isn't very much supporting documentation for it...
Arduino Uno32 ICSP
Arduino Uno32 ICSP

[Updated on: Mon, 05 September 2011 20:33]

 Topic: PIC Assembler Directives
PIC Assembler Directives [message #80] Sun, 01 October 2006 20:03
kc2nda  is currently offline kc2nda
Messages: 29
Registered: December 2004
Location: New Paltz
Junior Member

PIC Assembler Language Directives

Assembler directives are instructions that direct the assembler to do something.

Directives do many things; some tell the assembler to set aside space for variables, others tell the assembler to include additional source files, and others establish the start address for your program. The directives available are shown below:

= Assigns a value to a symbol (same as EQU)

EQU Assigns a value to a symbol (same as =)

ORG Sets the current origin to a new value. This is used to set the program or register address during assembly. For example, ORG 0100h tells the assembler to assemble all subsequent code starting at address 0100h.

DS Defines an amount of free space. No code is generated. This is sometimes used for allohoneying variable space.

ID Sets the PIC's identifihoneyion bytes. PIC16C5x chips have two ID bytes, which can be set to a 2-byte value. Newer PICs have four 7-bit ID lohoneyions, which can be filled with a 4-character text string.

INCLUDE Loads another source file during assembly. This allows you to insert an additional source file into your code during assembly. Included source files usually contain common routines or data. By using an INCLUDE directive at the beginning of your program, you can avoid re-typing common information. Included files may not contain other included files. NOTE: The Device Include directive (i.e. INCLUDE 'C:\PicTools\' ) for the targeted device MUST be at the beginning of your source code.

FUSES NOTE that FUSE CONFIGURATIONs can be '&' together on a single line and/or spread between multiple lines. ALL FUSES directives are ANDed together to create the composite FUSE CONFIGURATION. (view the device "include" file for specific fuse syntax)

IF Assembles code if expression evaluates to TRUE.

IFNOT Assembles code if expression evaluates to FALSE.

ELSE Assembles code if preceeding evaluation is rejected.

ENDIF Ends conditional evaluation.

RESET Sets the reset start address. This address is where program execution will start following a reset. A jump to the given address is inserted at the last lohoneyion in memory. After the PIC is reset, it starts executing code at the last lohoneyion, which holds the jump to the given address. RESET is only available for PIC16C5x chips.

EEORG Sets the current data EEPROM origin to a new value. This is used to set the data EEPROM address during assembly. This directive usually precedes EEDATA. EEORG is only available for PICs that have EEPROM memory .

EEDATA Loads data EEPROM with given values. This provides a means of automatically storing values in the data EEPROM when the PIC is programmed. This is handy for storing configuration or start-up information. EEDATA is only available for PICs that have EEPROM memory.

Assembler Directive Examples

Include 'C:\PICTOOLS\' ; loads default symbols
; for the targeted device.
FUSES _WD_OFF&_LP_OSC ; specify multiple fuse settings
; using the '&' operator.
FUSES _CP_ON ; Specifies 1 fuse setting per line.
Digit = 43h ; Assign value 43h to Digit
Max EQU 1Ah ; Assign value 1Ah to Max
>ORG 10h ; Set assembly address to 10h
Count DS 2 ; Define 2 bytes at 10h & 11h
; Bytes can be referred to
; later as Count and Count+1
ID 1234h ; Set 16C5x ID to 1234h
ID "ABCD" ; Set newer PIC ID to 'ABCD'
INCLUDE "KEYS.SRC" ; Include KEYS.SRC file at
; point of insertion
RESET Start ; Set 16C5x reset jump to
; lohoneyion at Start
Start mov Count,#00 ; This will be executed
; when PIC is reset
EEORG 10h ; Set EEPROM address to 10h
EEDATA 02h,88h,34h ; Store 3 bytes in EEPROM

[Updated on: Sat, 08 December 2012 02:44] by Moderator

 Topic: PIC Assembly Language Commands
PIC Assembly Language Commands [message #59] Sun, 21 May 2006 23:55
kc2nda  is currently offline kc2nda
Messages: 29
Registered: December 2004
Location: New Paltz
Junior Member

PIC Assembly Language Commands







Add Literal to W




Add W to file




And Literal with W




And W with file




Clear a bit from file




Set a bit in file




Test bit in file, skip next if clear (0)




Test bit in file, skip next if set (1)




Call subroutine




Set file to 0




Set W to 0




Clear watchdog timer




Complement (Invert) file




Decrement file




Decrement file, skip next if zero




Goto line number




Increment file




Increment file, skip next if zero




(Inclusive) OR literal with W




(Inclusive) OR W with file




Move literal to W




Move file to W




Move W to file




No operation

Do nothing



Copies W into Option register

To be discontinued



Return from handling interrupt




Return with a literal in W




Return from subroutine




Rotate a file left




Rotate a file right




Enter 'sleep' mode




Subtract literal from W




Subtract W from file




Swap 2 files




Configure ports as I/O

To be discontinued



(Exclusive) OR literal with W




(Exclusive) OR W with file


[Updated on: Mon, 22 May 2006 00:05] by Moderator

 Topic: Enhanced Willem Programmer
Enhanced Willem Programmer [message #48] Tue, 04 April 2006 01:46
kc2nda  is currently offline kc2nda
Messages: 29
Registered: December 2004
Location: New Paltz
Junior Member
I purchased an Enhanced Willem Programmer to read and program chips. It is probably one of the best programmers I have used yet. Although I do wish the documentation was better! If anyone is looking for a programmer that will program PIC chips, I recommend this programmer. Of course before purchasing, make sure it will handle the chips you are looking to program.

In order to use this programmer to program some PIC chips, you do need to use the ICSP pins. The easiest way i think would be to get a 5 pin connector (to match the ICSP header on the PCB) and a 28 or 40 pin socket. Solder the 5 wires to the connector then solder the other sides to the chip socket in the right order (of course).

Here is the 5pin ICSP header to a 28 pin PIC chip's connection:

Vpp <--------> Pin 1
Vdd <--------> Pin 20
GND <--------> Pin 19
RB7 <--------> Pin 28
RB6 <--------> Pin 27

Here is the 5pin ICSP header to a 40 pin PIC chip's connection:

Vpp <--------> Pin 1
Vdd <--------> Pin 32
GND <--------> Pin 31
RB7 <--------> Pin 40
RB6 <--------> Pin 39

Here is the 5pin ICSP header to a 18 pin PIC chip's connection:

Vpp <--------> Pin 4
Vdd <--------> Pin 14
GND <--------> Pin 5 (Vss)
RB7 <--------> Pin 13
RB6 <--------> Pin 12

I hope this helps any newbies. Don't forget to look at the chip's datasheet though. It MAY or MAY NOT be different. It is always better to make sure the pinouts are the same. This Enhanced Willem Programmer is awesome! After reading most frustrated forum posters, I have come to realize that it is easier to get mad at someone else than to try to solve the problem. Most of the problems I have had with the programmer is LACK of documentation. Other than that, I have gotten it to read and program many different chips. Hats off to the developers of this programmer. It is very nice for the money! If anyone else finds this post helpful, PLEASE pbass it on. The documentation on these should be better written!


[Updated on: Sat, 15 April 2006 19:38]

Forum: Pagers
 Topic: Cloning Flex pagers
Cloning Flex pagers [message #303] Thu, 21 October 2010 17:11
stepnjump  is currently offline stepnjump
Messages: 1
Registered: October 2010
Location: Montreal
Junior Member
Hi guys,

I have a lot of pagers. they are all on the same frequency. Years ago, it used to be cheaper to have them all on the group call than now. Now it costs even more to have them on group call than if they were all on separate phone numbers!

Would any of you know if there would be a way to have them all again on the same cap-code or clone them so that once I page one beeper, they would all ring?

 Topic: Motorola Service Manuals
Motorola Service Manuals [message #213] Sat, 10 October 2009 22:01
kc2nda  is currently offline kc2nda
Messages: 29
Registered: December 2004
Location: New Paltz
Junior Member
Universal Programming Interface

Instruction Manual (w/schematics): 6881010B39

Bravo Plus
Theory/Maintenance: 6881012B35
Service Manual 33-37, 40-50 MHz: 6881012B15
Service Manual 138-174 MHz: 6881012B20
Service Manual, Synthesized RX 152-160: 6881012B80
Service Manaul 406-422, 435-512 MHz: 6881012B25
Service Manual 929-932 MHz: 6881012B30
Service Manual, Synthesized RX 929-932 MHz: 6881012B85

Scriptor LX2/Advisor Pro
Theory Maintenance Manual: 6881021B90
VHF Receiver Servicing Supplement: 6881103B36
Decoder Servicing Supplement: 6881104B25
Service Manual AARD RX kits, 132-174 MHz: 6881022B60

Theory/Maintenance Manual: 6881011B75
Service Manual 138-174 MHz: 6881011B55
Decoder Servicing Supplement: 6881104B15
Servicing Supplement: 6881103B02

Bravo Series Stand Alone Programmer
Instruction/Service Manual: 6881051C20

Theory/Maintenance Manual, GSC: 6881046C40
Service Manual, GSC 138-174 MHz: 6881046C30
Theory/Maintenance Manual, POGSAG: 6881047C95
Service Manual, Low-band VHF: 6881047C70
Service Manual, High-band VHF: 6881047C75
Service Manual, UHF: 6881047C80
Service Manual, 900 MHz: 6881006B85


Instruction/Service Manual, Tone and Voice, 138-174 MHz: 6881008B15

Wrist Watch Pager
Theory/Maintenance Manual: 6881011B15
Service Manual 138-174 MHz: 6881011B10
Programmer Instructions: 6881011B06
Operating Instructions: 6881011B05

Theory/Maintenance Manual: 6881033C65
Tone Alert/Silent Alert Service Manual, VHF: 6881032C55
Tone Alert/Silent Alert Service Manual, Low-band VHF: 6881032C75
Tone and Voice Service Manual, VHF: 6881032C50
Tone and Voice Service Manual, Low-band VHF: 6881032C60

Pageboy II
Theory/Maintenance Manual, 138-174 MHz: 6881000C90
Instruction Manual, 450-512 MHz: 6881009C60

Instruction Manual 132-174 MHz: 6881014C20

 Topic: Paging Frequency Allocations
Paging Frequency Allocations [message #69] Sat, 01 July 2006 22:49
root  is currently offline root
Messages: 140
Registered: December 2004
Senior Member
List of Paging Frequencies:

The FCC has set aside several frequency bands that paging companies are able
to use. These bands are (in MHz):

35 - 36
43 - 44
138 - 159
454 - 460
929 - 932
959 - 960

 Topic: Bravo Plus Receiver Board Part Numbers and Frequencies
Bravo Plus Receiver Board Part Numbers and Frequencies [message #67] Sat, 01 July 2006 22:36
root  is currently offline root
Messages: 140
Registered: December 2004
Senior Member
-Bravo Plus-

Service Manual Numbers:
Theory/Maintenance: 6881012B35
Service Manual 138-174 MHz: 6881012B20
Service Manual, Synthesized RX 152-160: 6881012B80
Service Manual 406-422, 435-512 MHz: 6881012B25

Receiver Board Part Numbers
138 - 143 MHz - AARD4050A
138 - 143 MHz - NRD7211A,B
143 - 148.6 MHz - AARD4051A
143 - 148.6 MHz - NRD7212A,B
148.6 - 152 MHz - AARD4052A
148.6 - 152 MHz - NRD7213A,B
152 - 159 MHz - AARD4053A
- NRD4050G
454 MHz - NRE6553C


[Updated on: Sat, 01 July 2006 22:48]

 Topic: POCSAG Pager Protocol
POCSAG Pager Protocol [message #66] Sat, 01 July 2006 21:28
root  is currently offline root
Messages: 140
Registered: December 2004
Senior Member

The following summary describes the coding used on POCSAG pager
signals and may be of interest to those curious about what those ear-splitting
beeps and buzzes mean and how they encode data. This summary is
based on a very old text of the standard from my files; the current
text of the POCSAG standard is available as CCIR Radiopaging Format 1.

Note that some current POCSAG signals (so called Super-POCSAG)
transmit paging at 1200 or 2400 baud instead of the 512 baud I refer to
here, but use essentially a similar coding standard.

The interested USA reader is reminded that willfully intercepting
other than tone only paging is a violation of the ECPA with similar
penalties and criminal status to willfully intercepting cellular phone calls.

The interested reader is advised that at least two of Universal
Shortwave's RTTY reading devices (the M8000 and the new C-400) are
capable of reading at least the older 512 baud version of POCSAG paging,
so commercial devices for this purpose are currently being sold in
the USA.

And finally, much alphanumeric paging - particularly that installed
some time ago, uses a proprietary Motorola encoding format called
GOLAY which is quite different from POCSAG. The two can be told apart
by their baud rates - GOLAY is 600 baud.


First POCSAG stands for Post Office Code Standarization Advisory
Group. Post office in this context is the British Post Office
which used to be the supplier of all telecommunihoneyions services in
England before privatization.

POCSAG as defined in the standard, (original POCSAG) is 512 bits
per second direct FSK (not AFSK) of the carrier wave with +- 4.5 khz shift
(less deviation than that is used in some US systems). Data is
NRZ coded with the higher frequency representing 0 (space) and the
lower one representing 1 (mark).

The basic unit of data in a POCSAG message is the codeword which
is always a 32 bit long entity. The most significant bit of a codeword
is transmitted first followed immediately by the next most significant
bit and so forth. The data is NRZ, so that mark and space values (plus
and minus voltages) as sampled on the output of the receiver
discriminator at a 512 hz rate corrospond directly to bits in the
codeword starting with the MSB. (Note that the audio output circuitry
following the discriminator in a typical voice scanner may considerably
distort this square wave pattern of bits, so it is best to take the
signal directly off the discriminator before the audio filtering).

The first (msb) bit of every POCSAG codeword (bit 31) indihoneyes
whether the codeword is an address codeword (pager address) (bit 31 = 0)
or a message codeword (bit 31 = 1). The two codeword types have
have different internal structure.

Message codewords (bit 31 = 1) use the 20 bits starting at bit
30 (bit 30-11) as message data. Address codewords (bit 31 = 0) use 18
bits starting at bit 30 as address (bits 30-13) and bits 12 and 11 as
function bits which indihoneye the type and format of the page. Bits 10 through
1 of both types of codewords are the bits of a BCH (31,21) block ECC
code computed over the first 31 bits of the codeword, and bit 0
of both codeword types is an even parity bit.

The BCH ECC code used provides a 6 bit hamming distance between
all valid codewords in the possible set (that is every valid 32 bit
codeword differs from ever other one in at least 6 bits). This makes
one or two bit error correction of codewords possible, and provides
a robust error detection capability (very low chance of false pages).
The generating polynomial for the (31,21) BCH code is x**10 + x**9
+ x**8 + x**6 + x**5 + x**3 + 1.

Codewords are transmitted in groups of 16 (called batches), and
each batch is preceeded by a special 17th codeword which contains a
fixed frame synchronization pattern. At least as of the date of the
spec I have, this sync magic word was 0x7CD215D8.

Batches of codewords in a transmission are preceeded by a start
of transmission preamble of reversals (10101010101 pattern) which must
be at least 576 bits long. Thus a transmission (paging burst) consists
of carrier turnon during which it is modulated with 512 baud reversals
(the preamble pattern) followed by at least 576/512 seconds worth of
actual preamble, and then a sync codeword (0x7CD215D8), followed by 16
data/address codewords, another sync codeword, 16 more data/address
codewords and so forth until the traffic is completely transmitted. As
far I am aware there is no specified postamble. I beleive that all 16
of the last codewords of a transmission are always sent before the
carrier is shut off, and if there is no message to be sent in them the
idle codeword (0x7A89C197) is sent. Later versions of the standard may
have modified this however.

In order to save on battery power and not require that a pager
receive all the bits of an entire transmission (allowing the receiver
to be turned off most of the time, even when a message is being transmitted
on the channel) a convention for addressing has been incorperated which
splits the pager population into 8 groups. Members of each group
only pay attention to the two address code words following the synch
codeword of a block that corrospond to their group. This means that
as far as addressing is concerned, the 16 codewords in a batch are
divided into 8 frames of two codewords apiece and any given pager
pays attention only to the two in the frame to which it assigned.

A message to a pager consists of an address codeword in the
proper two codeword frame within the batch to match the recipients frame
assignment (based on the low three bits of the recipient's 21 bit
effective address), and between 0 and n of the immediately following
code words which contain the message text. A message is terminated by
either another address code word or an idle codeword. Idle codewords
have the special hex value of 0x7A89C197. A message with a long text
may potentially spill over between two or more 17 codeword batches.

Space in a batch between the end of a message in a transmission and
either the end of the batch or the start of the next message (which of
course can only start in the two correct two codeword frame assigned to
the recipient) is filled with idle codewords. A long message which
spills between two or more batches does not disrupt the batch structure
(sync codeword and 16 data/address code words - sync code word and
16 data/address codewords and so forth) so it is possible for a pager
not being addressed to predict when to next listen for its address and
only turn on it's receiver then.

The early standard text I have available to me specifies a 21 bit
address format for a pager (I beleive this has been extended since)
with the upper 18 bits of a pager's address mapping into bits
30-13 of the address codeword and the lower 3 bits specifiying which
codewords within a 17 codeword batch to look at for possible messages.
The address space is further subdivided into 4 different message classes
as specified by the function bits (bits 12 and 11 of a codeword). These
address classes corrospond to different message types (for example
bits 12 and 11 both zero indihoneye a numeric message encoded in 4 bit BCD,
whilst bits 12 and 11 both set to 1 indihoneye an alpha message encoded
in 7 bit ASCII). It was apparently envisioned that a given pager could
have different addresses for different message types.

There are two message coding formats defined for the text of messages,
BCD and 7 bit ASCII. BCD encoding packs 4 bit BCD symbols 5 to a codeword
into bits 30-11. The most significant nibble (bits 30,29,28,27) is the
leftmost (or most significant) of a BCD coded numeric datum. Values beyond 9
in each nibble (ie 0xA through 0xF) are encoded as follows:

0xA Reserved (probably used for something now - address extension ?)
0xB Character U (for urgency)
0xC " ", Space (blank)
0xD "-", Hyphen (or dash)
0xE ")", Left bracket
0xF "(", Right bracket

BCD messages are space padded with trailing 0xC's to fill the codeword.
As far as I know there is no POCSAG specified restriction on length but
particular pagers of course have a fixed number of characters in their

Alphanumeric messages are encoded in 7 bit ASCII characters packed
into the 20 bit data area of a message codeword (bits 30-11). Since four
seven bit characters are 21 rather than 20 bits and the designers of the
standard did not want to waste transmission time, they chose to pack the
first 20 bits of an ASCII message into the first code word, the next
20 bits of a message into the next codeword and so forth. This means
that a 7 bit ASCII character of a message that falls on a boundary can
and will be split between two code words, and that the alignment of character
boundaries in a particular alpha message code word depends on which code
word it is of a message. Within a codeword 7 bit characters are packed
from left to right (MSB to LSB). The LSB of an ASCII character is sent
first (is the MSB in the codeword) as per standard ASCII transmission
conventions, so viewed as bits inside a codeword the characters are
bit reversed.

ASCII messages are terminated with ETX, or EOT (my documentation
on this is vague) and the remainder of the last message codeword is
padded to the right with zeros (which looks like some number of NULL
characters with the last one possibly partial (less than 7 bits)).

The documentation I have does not specify how long a ASCII
message may be, but I suspect that subsequent standards have probably
addressed the issue and perhaps defined a higher level message protocol
for partitioning messages into pieces. The POCSAG standard clearly
does seem to allow for the notion of encoding messages as mixed
strings of 7 bit alpha encoded text and 4 bit BCD numerics, and it
is at least possible that some pagers and paging systems use this
to reduce message transmission time (probably by using some character
other than ETX to delimit a partial ASCII message fragment).

Brett Miller N7OLQ

[Updated on: Sun, 02 July 2006 01:01]

 Topic: Phrack Magazine - The Wonderful World of Pagers
Phrack Magazine - The Wonderful World of Pagers [message #38] Sun, 22 January 2006 23:04
root  is currently offline root
Messages: 140
Registered: December 2004
Senior Member
==Phrack Magazine==

Volume Five, Issue Forty-Six, File 8 of 28

************************************************************ ****************

The Wonderful World of Pagers

by Erik Bloodaxe

Screaming through the electromagnet swamp we live in are hundreds of
thousands of messages of varying degrees of importance. Doctors,
police, corporate executives, housewives and drug dealers all find
themselves constantly trapped at the mercy of a teeny little box:
the pager.

Everyone has seen a pager; almost everyone has one. Over 20 million
pagers are on the streets in the US alone, sorting out their particular
chunk of the radio-spectrum. Another fifty-thousand more are
put into service each day.

But what the hell are these things really doing? What more can we
do with them than be reminded to call mom, or to "pick up dry-cleaning?"



Pagers today use a variety of signalling formats such as POCSAG, FLEX
and GOLAY. The most common by far is POCSAG (Post Office Standardization
Advisory Group), a standard set by the British Post Office and adopted
world-wide for paging.

POCSAG is transmitted at three transmission rates--512, 1200 and 2400 bps.
Most commercial paging companies today use at least 1200, although many
companies who own their own paging terminals for in-house use transmit
at 512. Nationwide carriers (SkyTel, PageNet, MobileComm, etc.) send
the majority of their traffic at 2400 to make the maximum use of
their bandwidth. In other words, the faster they can deliver pages,
the smaller their queue of outgoing pages is. Although these
carriers have upgraded their equipment in the field to broadcast at
2400 (or plan to do so in the near future), they still send out
some pages at 1200 and 512 to accommodate their customers with older
pagers. Most 512 and 1200 traffic on the nationwide services is
numeric or tone-only pages.

POCSAG messages are broadcast in batches. Each batch is comprised of 8
frames, and each frame contains two codewords separated by a
"synchronization" codeword. A message can have as many codewords
as needed to deliver the page and can stretch through several batches
if needed. The end of a complete message is indicated by a "next address"
codeword. Both addressing and user data are sent in the codewords, the
distinction being the least significant bit of the codeword:
0 for address data, and 1 for user-data.

Standard alphanumeric data is sent in a seven-bit format, with each codeword
containing 2 6/7 characters. A newer 8-bit alphanumeric format is
implemented by some carriers which allow users to send data such as
computer files, graphics in addition to regular alphanumeric messages.
The 8 bit format allows for 2.5 characters per codeword.

Numeric data is 4 bit, allowing up to 5 numbers to be transmitted per
codeword. Tone and voice pages contain address information only.

(NOTE: Pager data uses BCH 32,21 for encoding. I don't imagine
very many of you will be trying to decode pager data by building your
own decoders, but for those of you who may, take my interpretation
of POCSAG framing with a grain of salt, and try to dig up the
actual POCSAG specs.)


Paging receivers come in hundreds of shapes and sizes, although the vast
majority are manufactured by Motorola. Numeric pagers comprise over
fifty percent all pagers in use. Alphanumeric comprises about thirty
percent, with tone and voice pagers making up the remainder.

Pagers are uniquely addressed by a capcode. The capcode is usually six
to eight digits in length, and will be printed somewhere on the pager
itself. Many pager companies bassign customers PIN numbers, which are
then cross-referenced to a given capcode in databases maintained by
the service provider. PIN numbers have no other relationship
to the capcode.

Tone pagers are by far the most limited paging devices in use.
When a specified number has been called, an address only message
is broadcast, which causes the intended receiver to beep. Wow.
Tone pagers usually have 4 capcodes, which can correspond to
different locations to call back. Voice pagers are similar, except
they allow the calling party to leave a 15 to 30 second message.
The voice message is broadcast immediately after the capcode of the
receiver, which unsquelches the device's audio.

Numeric pagers, although seemingly limited by their lack of display
options have proven otherwise by enterprising users. Most numeric
data sent is obviously related to phone numbers, but numerous users
have developed codes relating to various actions to be carried out
by the party being paged. The most prolific users of this have
been the Chinese who have one of the most active paging networks
in the world. I suppose the next biggest users of code-style numeric
paging would be drug dealers. (2112 0830 187 -- get to the fudgeing
drop site by 8:30 or I'll bust a cap in your bass!) Smile

Alphanumeric pagers are most often contacted through a dedicated
service that will manually enter in the message to be sent onto the
paging terminal. One such service, NDC, offers its phone-answering
and message typing services to various pager companies. Next time
you are talking to a pager operator, ask him or her if they are at
NDC. They probably are.

In addition to the capcode, pagers will have an FCC ID number, a serial
number, and most importantly, the frequency that the device has been
crystaled for imprinted on the back of the device. Although technology
exists that would allow pagers to listen on a number of frequencies
by synthesizing the frequency rather than using a crystal, pager
manufacturers stick to using crystals to "keep the unit cost down."

Pagers may have multiple capcodes by which they can be addressed by.
Multiple capcodes are most often used when a person has subscribed to
various services offered by their provider, or when the subscriber is
part of a group of individuals who will all need to receive the same
page simultaneously (police, EMTs, etc.).

Most low-cost pagers have their capcode stored on the circuit board
in a PAL. Most paging companies will completely exchange pagers
rather than remove and reprogram the PAL, so I don't think
it's worth it for any experimenter to attempt. However, like most
Motorola devices, many of their paging products can be reprogrammed
with a special serial cable and software. Reprogramming software
is usually limited to changing baud rates, and adding capcodes.

Additionally, some units can be reprogrammed over the air by the
service provider. Using a POCSAG feature known as OTP (over the air
programming) the service provider can instruct the paging receiver to
add capcodes, remove capcodes, or even shut itself down in the case
of non-payment.


With the growing popularity of alphanumeric pagers, many service providers
have decided to branch out into the information business. The most
common of these services is delivery of news headlines. Other services
include stock quotes, airline flight information, voice mail and
fax reception notification, and email. Of course, all of these services
are available for a small additional monthly premium.

Email is probably the single coolest thing to have sent to your
alpha pager. (Unless you subscribe to about a zillion mailing lists)
Companies like SkyTel and Radiomail give the user an email address
that automatically forwards to your paging device.
IE: Several packages exist for forwarding
email from a UNIX system by sending stripping down the email to
pertinent info such as FROM and SUBJECT lines, and executing a script
to send the incoming mail out via a pager terminal data port.
One such program is IXOBEEPER, which can be found with an archie

Radiomail's founder, (and rather famous ex-hacker in his own right - go
look at ancient ComputerWorld headlines), Geoff Goodfellow had devised
such a method back in the late 70's. His program watched for incoming
email, parsed the mail headers, and redirected the FROM and SUBJECT
lines to his alphanumeric pager. Obviously, not many people had
alphanumeric pagers at all, much less email addresses on ARPANET
back in the 70's, so Geoff's email pager idea didn't see much
wide-spread use until much later.

Two RFC's have been issued recently regarding paging and the Internet.
RFC 1568, the Simple Network Paging Protocol, acts similarly to SMTP.
Upon connecting to the SNPP port the user issues commands such as:

PAGE followed by pager telephone number
MESS followed by the alpha or numeric message

RFC 1568 has met with some opposition in the IETF, who don't consider
it worthwhile to implement a new protocol to handle paging, since it
can be handled easily using other methods.

The other RFC, number 1569, suggests that paging be addressed in a rather
unique manner. Using the domain TPC.INT, which would be reserved for
services that necessitate the direct connection to The Phone Company,
individual pagers would be addressed by their individual phone numbers.
Usernames would be limited to pager-alpha or pager-numeric to represent
the type of pager being addressed. For example, an alpha-page being sent to
1-800-555-1212 would be sent as


Many services offer modem connections to pager terminals so that
computer users can send pages from their desks using software packages
like WinBeep, Notify! or Messenger. All of these services connect to
the pager terminal and speak to it using a protocol known as

Upon connection, a pager terminal identifies itself with the following:


(I bet you always wondered what the hell those systems were)
Paging terminals default to 300 E71, although many larger companies
now have dialups supporting up to 2400.

Many such systems allow you to manually enter in the appropriate information
by typing a capital "M" and a return at the ID= prompt. The system will then
prompt you for the PIN of the party you wish to page, followed by a prompt
for the message you wish to send, followed by a final prompt asking if you
wish to send more pages. Not every pager terminal will support a manual
entry, but most do.

All terminals support the IXO protocol. As there are far too many
site specific examples within the breadth of IXO, we will concentrate on
the most common type of pager services for our examples.

[ Sample IXO transaction of a program sending the message ABC to PIN 123
gleened from the IXOBeeper Docs ]

Pager Terminal YOU
------------------------------------------------------------ --

Processing - Please Wait




The checksum data came from:

STX 000 0010
1 011 0001
2 011 0010
3 001 0011
000 1101
A 100 0001
B 100 0010
C 100 0011
000 1101
ETX 000 0011
1 0111 1011
1 7 ; Get it? Get an ASCII chart and it will all make sense.

Note: Everything in the paging blocks, from STX to ETX inclusive are used
to generate the checksum. Also, this is binary data, can't
just type at the ID= prompt and expect to have it recognized as IXO.
It wants specific BITS. Got it? Just checking...


[Frequencies transmitting pager information are extremely easy to
identify while scanning. They identify each batch transmission
with a two-tone signal, followed by bursts of data. People with
scanners may tune into some of the following frequencies to
familiarize themselves with this distinct audio.]

Voice Pager Ranges: 152.01 - 152.21
453.025 - 453.125
454.025 - 454.65
462.75 - 462.925

Other Paging Ranges: 35.02 - 35.68
43.20 - 43.68
152.51 - 152.84
157.77 - 158.07
158.49 - 158.64
459.025 - 459.625
929.0125 - 931.9875


Austria 162.050 - 162.075 T,N,A
Australia 148.100 - 166.540 T,N,A
411.500 - 511.500 T,N,A
Canada 929.025 - 931-975 T,N,A
138.025 - 173.975 T,N,A
406.025 - 511.975 T,N,A
China 152.000 - 172.575 N,A
Denmark 469.750 N,A
Finland 450.225 T,N,A
146.275 - 146.325 T,N,A
France 466.025 - 466.075 T,N,A
Germany 465.970 - 466.075 T,N,A
173.200 T,N,A
Hong Kong 172.525 N,A
280.0875 T,N,A
Indonesia 151.175 - 153.050 A
Ireland 153.000 - 153.825 T,N,A
Italy 466.075 T,N,A
161.175 T,N
Japan 278.1625 - 283.8875 T,N
Korea 146.320 - 173.320 T,N,A
Malaysia 152.175 - 172.525 N,A,V
931.9375 N,A
Netherlands 156.9865 - 164.350 T,N,A
New Zealand 157.925 - 158.050 T,N,A
Norway 148.050 - 169.850 T,N,A
Singapore 161.450 N,A
931.9375 N,A
Sweden 169.8 T,N,A
Switzerland 149.5 T,N,A
Taiwan 166.775 N,A
280.9375 N,A
Thailand 450.525 N,A
172.525 - 173.475 N,A
UK 138.150 - 153.275 T,N,A
454.675 - 466.075 T,N,A

T = Tone
N = Numeric
A = Alphanumeric
V = Voice


For many years the interception of pages was not considered an
invasion of privacy because of the limited information provided
by the tone-only pagers in use at the time. In fact, when
Congress pbassed the Electronic Communications Privacy Act in 1986
tone-only pagers were exempt from its provisions.

According to the ECPA, monitoring of all other types of paging signals,
including voice, is illegal. But, due to this same law, paging
transmissions are considered to have a reasonable expectation to
privacy, and Law Enforcement officials must obtain a proper court
order to intercept them, or have the consent of the subscriber.

To intercept pages, many LE-types will obtain beepers programmed with
the same capcode as their suspect. To do this, they must contact
the paging company and obtain the capcode bassociated with the person
or phone number they are interested in. However, even enlisting
the bassistance of the paging companies often requires following
proper legal procedures (warrants, subpoenas, etc.).

More sophisticated pager-interception devices are sold by a variety
of companies. SWS Security sells a device called the "Beeper Buster"
for about $4000.00. This particular device is scheduled as
a Title III device, so any possession of it by someone outside
a law enforcement agency is a federal crime. Greyson Electronics
sells a package called PageTracker that uses an ICOM R7100
in conjunction with a personal computer to track and decode pager
messages. (Greyson also sells a similar package to decode
AMPS cellular messages from forward and reverse channels called

For the average hacker-type, the most realistic and affordable option
is the Universal M-400 decoder. This box is about 400 bucks and
will decode POCSAG at 512 and 1200, as well as GOLAY (although I've never
seen a paging service using GOLAY.) It also decodes CTCSS, DCS, DTMF,
takes audio input from any scanners external speaker jack, and
is probably the best decoder available to the Hacker/HAM for the price.

Output from the M400 shows the capcode followed by T, N or A (tone, numeric
or alpha) ending with the message sent. Universal suggests hooking
the input to the decoder directly to the scanner before any de-emphasis
circuitry, to obtain the true signal. (Many scanners alter the audio
before output for several reasons that aren't really relevant to this
article...they just do. Smile )

Obviously, even by viewing the pager data as it streams by is of little
use to anyone without knowing to whom the pager belongs to. Law Enforcement
can get a subpoena and obtain the information easily, but anyone else
is stuck trying to social engineer the paging company. One other alternative
works quite well when you already know the individuals pager number,
and need to obtain the capcode (for whatever reason).

Pager companies will buy large blocks in an exchange for their customers.
It is extremely easy to discover the paging company from the phone number
that corresponds to the target pager either through the RBOC or by paging
someone and asking them who their provider is when they return your call.
Once the company is known, the frequencies allocated to that company
are registered with the FCC and are public information. Many CD-ROMs
are available with the entire FCC Master Frequency Database.
(Percon sells one for 99 bucks that covers the whole country -
716-386-6015) Libraries and the FCC itself will also have this information

With the frequency set and a decoder running, send a page that will be
incredibly easy to discern from the tidal wave of pages spewing
forth on the frequency. (6666666666, THIS IS YOUR TEST PAGE, etc...)
It will eventually scroll by, and presto! How many important people
love to give you their pager number?


With the advent of new technologies pagers will become even more
present in both our businesses and private lives. Notebook computers
and PDAs with PCMCIA slots can make use of the new PCMCIA pager cards.
Some of these cards have actual screens that allow for use without the
computer, but most require a program to pull message data out. These
cards also have somewhat large storage capacity, so the length of
messages have the option of being fairly large, should the service
provider allow them to be.

With the advent of 8-bit alphanumeric services, users with PCMCIA pagers
can expect to receive usable computer data such as spreadsheet
entries, word processing documents, and of course, GIFs. (Hey, porno
entrepreneurs: beeper-porn! Every day, you get a new gif sent to your
pagecard! Woo Woo. Sad thing is, it would probably sell.)

A branch of Motorola known as EMBARC (Electronic Mail Broadcast to A
Roaming Computer) was one of the first to allow for such broadcasts.
EMBARC makes use of a proprietary Motorola protocol, rather than
POCSAG, so subscribers must make use of either a Motorola NewsStream
pager (with nifty serial cable) or a newer PCMCIA pager. Messages are
sent to (and received by) the user through the use of special client

The software dials into the EMBARC message switch accessed through
AT&T's ACCUNET packet-switched network. The device itself is used
for authentication (most likely its capcode or serial number)
and some oddball protocol is spoken to communicate with the switch.

Once connected, users have the option of sending a page out, or
retrieving pages either too large for the memory of the pager, or
from a list of all messages sent in the last 24 hours, in case the
subscriber had his pager turned off.

Additionally, the devices can be addressed directly via x.400
addresses. (X.400: The CCITT standard that covers email address
far too long to be worth sending anyone mail to.) So essentially,
any EMBARC customer can be contacted from the Internet.

MTEL, the parent company of the huge paging service SkyTel, is
implementing what may be the next generation of paging technologies.
This service, NWN, being administrated by MTEL subsidiary Destineer,
is most often called 2-way paging, but is more accurately Narrowband-PCS.

The network allows for the "pager" to be a transceiver. When a page
arrives, the device receiving the page will automatically send back
an acknowledgment of its completed reception. Devices may also
send back some kind of "canned response" the user programs. An example
might be: "Thanks, I got it!" or "Why on Earth are you eating up my
allocated pages for the month with this crap?"

MTEL's service was awarded a Pioneers Preference by the FCC, which gave them
access to the narrowband PCS spectrum before the auctions. This is a big
deal, and did not go unnoticed by Microsoft. They dumped cash into the
network, and said the devices will be supported by Chicago. (Yeah,
along with every other device on the planet, right? Plug and Pray!)

The network will be layed out almost identically to MTEL's existing paging
network, using dedicated lines to connect towers in an area to a central
satellite up/downlink. One key difference will be the addition of
highly somewhat sensitive receivers on the network, to pick up the ACKs
and replies of the customer units, which will probably broadcast at
about 2 or 3 watts. The most exciting difference will be the
speed at which the network transmits data: 24,000 Kbps. Twenty-four
thousand. (I couldn't believe it either. Not only can you get your
GIFs sent to your pager, but you get them blinding FAST!) The actual
units themselves will most likely look like existing alphanumeric pagers
with possibly a few more buttons, and of course, PCMCIA units will
be available to integrate with computer applications.

Beyond these advancements, other types of services plan on offering
paging like features. CDPD, TDMA & CDMA Digital Cellular and ESMR
all plan on providing a "pager-like" option for their customers.
The mere fact that you can walk into a K-Mart and buy a pager
off a rack would indicate to me that pagers are far to ingrained into
our society, and represent a wireless technology that doesn't scare
or confuse the yokels. Such a technology doesn't ever really go away.


Kneitel, Tom, "The Secret Life of Beepers," _Popular Communications_,
p. 8, July, 1994.

O'Brien, Michael, "Beep! Beep! Beep!," _Sun Expert_, p. 17, March, 1994.

O'Malley, Chris, "Pagers Grow Up," _Mobile Office_, p. 48, August, 1994.

[Updated on: Sun, 22 January 2006 23:07]

 Topic: POCSAG Encoding
POCSAG Encoding [message #37] Sun, 22 January 2006 22:59
root  is currently offline root
Messages: 140
Registered: December 2004
Senior Member

You do not have a problem let me explain how POCSAG is encoded so that you
can understand why you are getting these results................

00000000000000000011101101001001 Cap Code 8 seen as 32 bits- Alphanumeric

In the example above the MSB is the bit on the left and is called bit 32.
bit 32 is a zero if the codeword is a cap code and a 1 if it is data.
bit 31 to bit 14 is where the Capcode is placed, the lower 3 bits of the
capcode are discarded and not sent (I will explain why in a moment)
bits 13 and 12 are the function bits setting the page as
Alphanumeric/Numeric/Tone one/Tone two.
bits 11 to 2 are a CRC (Cyclic Redundency Checksum) this can be used to
correct up to 2 bit errors in the sent data. (This is a huge subject in its
own right)
bit 1 is an even parity bit.... if all the bits that are a 1 in the codeword
add up to an uneven number then this bit is set to one, if not then its set
to zero.

POCSAG data is sent as 32 bit codewords and after 16 codewords have been
sent then a syncronization codeword is sent and then another 16 codewords
and then another syncronization codeword and so on and so on.
Each 16 codewords is called a FRAME.
The Frame is further split into double codewords, that gives us a total of 8
pairs of codewords....... now if you remember we dropped the last 3 bits of
the CAP code..... 3 bits gives us a number from 0 to 7...... 0 to 7 is eight
Because we dropped these 3 bits it means that pager 7 wil have the same
codeword value as pager 0 and pager 1 and pager 2 etc etc.
So in order to make sure that each pager only gets the pages its meant to
get what we do is to send pager zero's capcode and message in the first
double pair after a syncronization codeword and pager one's capcode and
message in the second double pair after a syncronization codeword...... etc

So to recap.........
If you enter the Cap code 8, then the first thing my PE software does is to
convert it to 1....... If you enter a Cap code of 9 then that is also
converted to 1....... infact all capcodes from 8 to 16 are all converted
into 1...... but when they are transmitted they are sent at different points
in time.... the point in time that a page is sent decides its value for the
lower 3 bits that we discarded.
So Cap Codes 0 to 7 have a POCSAG codeword of 0
So Cap Codes 8 to 15 have a POCSAG codeword of 1
So Cap Codes 16 to 24 have a POCSAG codeword of 2
And so on..........
There are over 2 million different Cap codes but only just over 250 thousand
Cap Code codewords transmitted.

So what you are experiencing is exactly what is supposed to happen with
POCSAG data.

I hope this helps,

All the best
Clive Cooper.
PE Version 3 is now available at my website

Forum: Forum Rules
 Topic: Ham's Forum Rules
Ham's Forum Rules [message #1] Mon, 20 December 2004 01:35
root  is currently offline root
Messages: 140
Registered: December 2004
Senior Member Forum Rules strives to create a friendly Ham Radio Community. In doing so, there are some rules and guidelines that should be followed:

1. When posting, pretend that you are on the radio and do not say things that you would not say on the radio. Our Administrators and Moderators reserve the right to delete or edit any posts that are deemed vulgar or inappropriate.

2. Flaming, name calling, or any other type of disruptive or insulting posts will not be tolerated. If you should have a problem with another user, contact the administrator. Ham operators should be role models. It is ok to disagree and discuss all sides of an issue, but please hold discussions in a civilized manner.

3. Spamming is not allowed. Any posts deemed as spam will be deleted.

4. Respect any warnings given by the Administrators or Moderators.

5. The Administrator has the right to ban anyone who refuses to obey the rules and guidelines set forth here.

6. is NOT responsible for your actions with anything in regards to any posts on this website. What you do with information found on this site is your business. You are solely responsible for your own actions. This website is for information purposes only!

7. Enjoy the forum

[Updated on: Sun, 27 August 2006 08:45]

Forum: UHF
 Topic: need help for programing software
need help for programing software [message #216] Thu, 24 December 2009 21:30
neild888  is currently offline neild888
Messages: 1
Registered: December 2009
Location: Philippines
Junior Member

Hi! guys, I bought a Unimo PX400NW UHF portable radio a korean made. I need your expertise to solve my problem. I need a software for this unit so that I could add more frequencies on the vacant channel of the radio. Please those of have this radio and having this programming software please send me in my email add and other compatible software also accepted. Thanks you and waiting to all your help.
Happy New year.

Forum: Circuit Design
 Topic: 2N2222 vs. 2N3904 NPN Transistors
2N2222 vs. 2N3904 NPN Transistors [message #79] Sat, 30 September 2006 12:09
kc2nda  is currently offline kc2nda
Messages: 29
Registered: December 2004
Location: New Paltz
Junior Member
>Can you pretty much interchangeably use 2n2222 and 2n3904 transistors?

No. They are intended for rather different purposes. The 2N2222 has an Ic max of 800mA (metal case, the PN2222 has less current capabilities), while the 2N3904 has something like 300mA Ic max. Pt also differ. The 2N3904 is a higher speed and generally lower noise device as well.

The 2N2222 is a medium-low power switch with higher input and output capacitances. The 2N3904 is a low power switch with lower noise and higher Ft.

Hfe is about the same for both.

BUT, if all you are doing is driving LEDs, then such considerations
don't matter.
 Topic: Types of Transistors
Types of Transistors [message #78] Thu, 21 September 2006 00:50
kc2nda  is currently offline kc2nda
Messages: 29
Registered: December 2004
Location: New Paltz
Junior Member
Types of transistors

There are two types of standard transistors, NPN and PNP, with different circuit symbols. The letters refer to the layers of semiconductor material used to make the transistor. Most transistors used today are NPN because this is the easiest type to make from silicon. This page is mostly about NPN transistors and if you are new to electronics it is best to start by learning how to use these first.

The leads are labelled base (B), collector (C) and emitter (E).
These terms refer to the internal operation of a transistor but they are not much help in understanding how a transistor is used, so just treat them as labels!

A Darlington pair is two transistors connected together to give a very high current gain.

In addition to standard (bipolar junction) transistors, there are field-effect transistors which are usually referred to as FETs. They have different circuit symbols and properties.
 Topic: Circuit Board Traces: Why not 90 Degrees
Circuit Board Traces: Why not 90 Degrees [message #77] Wed, 20 September 2006 23:01
kc2nda  is currently offline kc2nda
Messages: 29
Registered: December 2004
Location: New Paltz
Junior Member
Why isn't is a good idea to have 90 degree traces on your circuit?

Well, after some research, these are some of the answers found:

1. To reduce noise that will occur on smaller, thinner lines (EMF)

2. Sharp bends at 90 degrees have more inductance.
- Every wire is an inductor
- The reason you need decoupleing caps near IC's is just a few inchs of straight wire causes enough inductance to result in a sag
- Two 45 degree turns have less inductance then a 90 degree turn

If anyone can add to this, please do!
 Topic: AAA battery Information
AAA battery Information [message #65] Mon, 26 June 2006 00:30
root  is currently offline root
Messages: 140
Registered: December 2004
Senior Member
"AAA battery" may also be an abbreviation for "antiaircraft artillery battery".

An AAA battery (pronounced "triple A") is 44.5 mm long and 10.5 mm in diameter, weighing around 11.5 grams. Output of alkaline batteries in this size is 1.5 volts, 900 to 1,155 mAh (3240 to 4158 coulombs). Modern nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries of this size can store about 800 mAh, with an output of 1.2 volts.

The battery is also classified as LR03 (IEC), 24A (ANSI/NEDA), R03, MN2400, AM4, UM4, HP16, or micro.

It is commonly used in small electronic devices, such as TV remote controls, MP3-Players and digital cameras. Devices that require the same power but a battery that has a greater life time usually choose the AA battery type.

[Updated on: Tue, 19 March 2013 20:00]

Forum: Tube Testers
 Topic: Precision 612 Tube Tester Service / Refurbishing
Precision 612 Tube Tester Service / Refurbishing [message #178] Sat, 23 August 2008 08:24
root  is currently offline root
Messages: 140
Registered: December 2004
Senior Member


The precision model 612 is a combination tube and battery tester that, although employing only simple, straightforward (some would say "classic") vacuum tube emission testing circuitry is very well constructed of high quality components including a hefty, well made power transformer and rugged, durable switches. Since even the best electronic components may eventually change in electrical value due to the accumulated effects of heat and moisture and the other ravages of time, better quality tube testers (such as the 612) incorporate calibration controls which provide compensation for such changes and help assure the continuation of a high level of measurement accuracy. In this article we will not concern ourselves with the battery testing function of the 612 but will concentrate exclusively on refurbishing and calibrating the tube testing circuits.

I am, by the way, indebted to Dave Haggard (Easy rider 8 on the Antique Radios Forum) for much good advice regarding tube tester repair and calibration.

First Things First

There is no point in trying to calibrate a tube tester that contains bad component parts, so our first step is to identify those parts that have to do with the tube testing (as opposed to battery testing) functions of the 612. We will then test and replace those parts as needed.

With the 612 lying on its back so the meter movement is in the normal position for testing tubes, you should be able to adjust the meter pointer to exactly zero on the meter scale using the mechanical zero set screw. If not and/or the pointer tends to stick, you have a meter movement problem. This article does not deal with meter movement repairs.

Referring to the schematic, we see that the 612 has only one capacitor, a .1mfd, 600 volt tubular type. I wouldn't bother to test it. Just replace it with a modern equivalent and be done with it.

Lohoneyed toward the right hand side of the schematic, in a vertical configuration, we see a large group of sixteen resistors, numbered R6 at the top and R26 at the bottom. These are obviously load resistors for the various battery test ranges and play no part in testing tubes, so we will ignore these.

Continuing our search for components that may need checking we find the following resistors all associated with testing tubes: R7,R8,R9,R10,R11,R12,R13 and R3. In my 612, R3 appears to be a hand wound, high precision unit while the others are 10% tolerance carbon composition types. As a purely practical matter, you could no doubt replace any of them with modern, 5% tolerance deposited film resistors. If you lack access to an ohmmeter of known accuracy (a Known good DMM would be the ideal test instrument for this purpose) you could just replace all of them as cost is not terribly high. I would use three watt units in each case.

It is mandatory that you clean all tube socket contacts and controls except R1 and R5 (do not disturb those two for now, we will deal with them in due time) and all switches with your favorite contact cleaner. My 612 had been serviced previously, and had several suspicious looking solder joints which Ire-soldered.

If the 5Y3 is not up to snuff, that problems should show up later on when we do the actual calibration procedure. An open fuse or pilot lamp or bad neon short test bulb should be easy enough to detect and you should clean all the tube socket contacts, and examine and possibly replace the ac line cord.

What The Calibration Controls Do

The 612 employs two calibration controls; R1, a 40 ohm open construction rheostat and R5,a 6K ohm, sealed unit. The logic here is simple. Since proper filament voltage plays a major role in honeyhode emission, emission readings can only be meaningful when the correct filament voltage is being applied to the tube under test. Proper adjustment of R5 assures that the secondary of the power transformer is supplying accurate voltages to the various tube socket heater pins.

The function of R1 (in the "read meter" circuit) is to adjust honeyhode current flow through panel meter M-1, so that the meter needle will move upscale the appropriate distance for the particular tube being tested, based on the condition of that tube in terms of its ability to emit electrons from its honeyhode. So, if either R1 or R5 are out of adjustment emission readings will have little or no real meaning.

Final Steps Prior to Calibration

At this point we have replaced the capacitor, tested and replaced resistors and the ac line cord as needed and cleaned all tube sockets, switches and controls except R1 and R5. We now turn our attention to R1. Using a fine point felt marker pen, mark the position of R1's movable contact. You can draw that mark on top of R1's shaft and across it's mounting nut onto the chassis. Since R1 is of open construction it is possible that time and the natural elements may have caused the slider to freeze in place. In that case, any sudden movement of the slider could result in permanent damage to the winding. I like to handle this kind of potential problem by spraying a little contact cleaner into a small container (the cover of the spray cleaner can is fine) and using a flat 1/8"wide artist brush, apply the cleaner under the slider where it contacts the wire element. You will also need to apply cleaner to the shaft and bearing surfaces of R1, of course. Let the cleaner soak into R1 for a while and then try (gently, please!) rotating the shaft. In my 612, I had to use penetrating oil on the shaft and it took several applihoneyions to loosen it. I used Singer Sewing Machine oil as a final treatment on the shaft and bearing. If you are satisfied that R1 is now working smoothly, return it to the marked setting.

Now, mark the position of the shaft of R5, use your spray cleaner on it and then return it to the marked position. I like to open older rheostats and potentiometers and clean them from the inside out, and lube the shaft with fine oil and the wire wound element with Lubriplate, but not Everybody wants to go that route, so do as you feel is best.

Calibration Procedure Part One

We will begin calibration by plugging the 612 in and depressing the "Read Meter" switch just far enough to turn the instrument on. Set control "A" to any of the positions between 1 and 5. The settings of the other controls should not matter.

Allow at least ten minutes warm-up time and then connect an accurate ac voltmeter across the entire 300 volt secondary of the transformer. Referring to the schematic, the low volt end of the secondary connects to one end of the filament of the 5Y3 and the 300 volt tap connects to one end of R13, a 3K ohm, 2 watt resistor.

Now, set the Line Adjust control for exactly 300 volts on your voltmeter and adjust R-5 until the meter needle on the 612 is centered over the line adjust mark. You will probably find it necessary to work back and forth between the Line Adjustment control and R5 until you have accomplished the following goals:

a) The meter needle must be centered over the "Line Adjust" mark

b) Your voltmeter must indihoneye 300 volts

c) There must be no hum from the transformer

d) The pilot lamp must not appear to be overly bright

A too-bright lamp and/or humming noise from the transformer means you need to back off on the Line Adjustment and then re-adjust R5 to center the needle. We have now completed the first part of our calibration procedure.

The Final Step

As is usually true with emission testers, the 612 "sees" a tube as "average-good" if that tube has sufficient honeyhode emission to cause the meter pointer to indihoneye at about three quarters of full scale. So, our final calibration procedure consists of adjusting R1 to give a meter reading of about three quarters full scale with an average emission tube plugged into the 612. I used an average emission 6L6 to calibrate my 612, as I was taught to do it that way, but I don't know of any particular reason why you should not use another tube type.

One way to obtain the required tube would be to contact your Favorite tube seller and ask him to remove three new (not used) tubes from stock and sell you the one that falls midway between the other two in amount of emission. It may be necessary to test more than three in order to weed out any that read especially high or low. With your 612 set up to test your chosen calibration tube, run through the usual test procedure and when you get to the emission portion of the test, adjust R1 to give the desired three quarters of full scale reading.

Congratulations! You now own a calibrated tube tester!

Malcolm Leonard


I recently obtained the schematic for the precision model 10-12 tube tester and appears that the calibration procedure given here may work for the 10-12 also in spite of it's being a more complex tube tester. This may hold true for other precision models as well.

If you encounter a problem with the meter needle on your 612 refusing to move all the way to the three quarter scale position the 5Y3 may have inadequate emission or the meter movement may have lost part of its magnetic strength, or may be jammed with dirt or tiny metal particles.

[Updated on: Sat, 23 August 2008 08:25]

Forum: Equipment Reviews
 Topic: Hammarlund HQ 160
Hammarlund HQ 160 [message #144] Tue, 09 October 2007 10:49
KFO-7220  is currently offline KFO-7220
Messages: 1
Registered: October 2007
Junior Member

[Updated on: Sun, 21 October 2007 13:13]

Forum: HF
 Topic: Operation on the New 60 M Band for IC-706MK2G
Operation on the New 60 M Band for IC-706MK2G [message #137] Sun, 03 June 2007 03:15
root  is currently offline root
Messages: 140
Registered: December 2004
Senior Member
Operation on the New 60 M Band for IC-706MK2G

The new 60 M amateur band became available for use on July 3, 2003. Operation on this band is allowed on 5 discrete frequencies and must adhere to the following: 2.8 kHz bandwidth, USB mode, and transmit a maximum of 50 watts ERP (Effective Radiated Power).
 Topic: New HF Antenna Website
New HF Antenna Website [message #95] Fri, 19 January 2007 17:50
Batman  is currently offline Batman
Messages: 2
Registered: January 2007
Junior Member
Pretty good wire antenna website for HF thru VHF.

Forum: Vintage Radio Equipment
 Topic: swan 500C
swan 500C [message #131] Sat, 12 May 2007 08:29
froehlyk  is currently offline froehlyk
Messages: 1
Registered: May 2007
Junior Member
anyone interested in buying a nice swan 500C with power supply/speaker
Forum: Hamfests
 Topic: Ham Fast that was NEVER Forgotten
Ham Fast that was NEVER Forgotten [message #130] Mon, 07 May 2007 20:13
root  is currently offline root
Messages: 140
Registered: December 2004
Senior Member
Why is this picture called BUTTHEAD?
Pictured: KB2PQE (Can you guess which one the REAL ham is?)

Don't you wish more hams looked like this?


  • Attachment: butthead.jpg
    (Size: 31.80KB, Downloaded 7158 time(s))

[Updated on: Mon, 07 May 2007 20:15]

Forum: APRS
 Topic: What is APRS?
What is APRS? [message #99] Sun, 21 January 2007 20:15
kc2nda  is currently offline kc2nda
Messages: 29
Registered: December 2004
Location: New Paltz
Junior Member
Automatic Position Reporting System (APRS) is an amateur radio based automatic position reporting system for tracking and digital communications, and was developed by Bob Bruninga, callsign WB4APR, at the United States Naval Academy.

In its simplest implementation, APRS is used to transmit real-time reports of the exact location of a person or object via a data signal sent over amateur radio frequencies. In addition to real-time position reporting capabilities using the Global Positioning System, APRS is also capable of transmitting a wide variety of data, including weather reports, short text messages, radio direction finding bearings, telemetry data, and storm forecasts. Once transmitted, these reports can be combined with a computer and mapping software to show the transmitted data superimposed with great precision upon a map display.

In its most widely used form, APRS is transported over the AX.25 protocol using 1200 baud Bell 202 audio frequency-shift keying on frequencies located within the amateur 2-meter band - usually 144.390 MHz in North America, 145.175 MHz in Australia, 144.575 MHz National APRS Freq and 144.650 digipeaters New Zealand please check with locals as there is no set coverage of any APRS Freq through out NZ, 144.930 MHz in Argentina, 145.570 in Brazil and 144.80 MHz throughout Europe. An extensive digital repeater, or "digipeater" network provides transport for APRS packets on these frequencies. Internet gateway stations (i-Gates) connect the on-air APRS network to the APRS Internet System (APRS-IS), which serves as a worldwide, high-bandwidth backbone for APRS data. Stations can tap into this stream directly, and a number of databases connected to the APRS-IS allow web-based access to the data as well as more advanced data mining capabilities. A number of low-earth orbiting satellites and the International Space Station are capable of relaying APRS data.
 Topic: APRS Frequencies
APRS Frequencies [message #98] Sun, 21 January 2007 20:10
kc2nda  is currently offline kc2nda
Messages: 29
Registered: December 2004
Location: New Paltz
Junior Member
A Radio Amateur installation would use a 2-meter transmitter and TNC.; The new APRS frequency of 2-meter is 144.39 MHz.
Although I have seen other frequencies used by other clubs, this is the common frequency.

I used the PSK31 device on this site to decode APRS packets. The link to this homebrew device is:

TrueTTY will decode the APRS transmissions. This can be downloaded at:


[Updated on: Sun, 21 January 2007 20:11]

Forum: Scanners
 Topic: Trouble locating a call sign
Trouble locating a call sign [message #85] Sat, 25 November 2006 10:11
hightower85  is currently offline hightower85
Messages: 1
Registered: November 2006
Location: Peekskill N.Y.
Junior Member
I contacted the following company that repairs radios for 2 transportation companies They told me that Loop bus of poughkeepsie and A & e transport of poughkeepsie are under them and that is why the call signs can't be located on the FCC site. They act like it is a big secret and don't even want to tell me despite the freedom of information act. the two bus companies are in a trunked system. I'm trying so many ways to track it down with no luck. Anyone out there that is resourcefull against all odds. Thanks in advance for anything that helps.
 Topic: Scanner Discriminator Pins
Scanner Discriminator Pins [message #84] Sun, 29 October 2006 01:28
root  is currently offline root
Messages: 140
Registered: December 2004
Senior Member
                DISCR/DET        CKT     BASEBAND
==============  ==============  =======  =========
unknown         MPS5071         n/a        9
AR-1000         TA-7787AF       IC-4       9
AR-2002         MC-3357P        IC-4       9
AR-2500		TA-7761P	IC-13      9
AR-3000         MC-3357P        ?          9
AR-800          MC-3361N        IC-200     9
AR-900          MC-3361N        IC-201     9
AR-950          MC-3361N        IC-201     9
AR-8000 NFM     TK10489M or-85M U1        11
AR-8000 WFM/AM  TA7792F         U3         8
BC-80XLT        MC3361B0        IC-101     9
BC-100XL        MC-3359P        IC-1      10
BC-100XLT       TK-10421M-2     IC-401    11
BC-140XLT       MC-3359P        IC-1      10 *
BC-200XLT       TK-10421M-2     IC-401    11
BC-205XLT       TK-10421M-2     IC-401    11
BC-235XLT       MC3361CDR2      IC-2       9
BC-250          ?               IC-3       9
BC-2500XLT      TK-10930VTL     IC-201    12-FM  13-AM
BC-3000 NFM/AM  TK-10930V       IC-202    12-NFM 13-AM
BC-3000 WFM     TK-10489M       IC-203    11
BC-350A         NJM-3359D-A     IC-3      10
BC-400XLT       NJM-3359D-A     IC-1      10
BC-560XLT       NJM-3359D-A     IC-1      10
BC-700A         NJM-3359D-A     IC-3      10
BC-760XLT       NJM-3359D-A     IC-2      10
BC-800XLT       MC-3359P        IC-1      10
BC-235XLT       MC3361CDR2      IC-2       9 *
BC-8500XLT      MC-3361BP       IC-9       9
BC-855XLT       TK-10421M-2     IC-401    11
BC-890XLT       NJM-3359D-A     IC-3      10
BC-895XLT       MC13371         IC-3       9 *
BC-950XLT       NJM-3359D-A     IC-2      10
BC-9000XLT      MC3361B0        IC-8       9
BC-9000XLT WFM  TK10489-MTL     IC-9      11
BC-9000XLT AM   LA1600A         IC7        8 or 9 (?)
BCT-7           MC3361BD        IC-2       9
HX-1000         TK-10420        U-201      9
MR-8100         NJM-3359D-A     IC-3      10
MX-5000         MC-3357P        IC-4       9
MX-7000         MC-3357P        IC-4       9
PRO-2002        MC-3357P        IC-101     9
PRO-2003        MC-3357P        IC-104     9
PRO-2004 NFM/AM TK-10420        IC-2       9 (TP4)
PRO-2004 WFM    KB4419A         IC-1       6 (TP3)
PRO-2005 NFM/AM TK-10420        IC-2       9 (TP2)
PRO-2005 WFM    KA2243N/HA12413 IC-1      10 (TP1)
PRO-2006 NFM/AM TK-10420        IC-2       9 (TP2)
PRO-2006 WFM    KA2243N/HA12413 IC-1      10 (TP1)
PRO-2011        TK-10420        IC-1       9
PRO-2020        MC-3357P        IC-101     9
PRO-2021        TK-10420        IC-2       9
PRO-2022        MC-3361N        IC-1       9
PRO-2023        NJM-3359D-A       ?       10
PRO-2024        MC-3361N        IC-2       9
PRO-2025        NJM-3359D-A     IC-1      10
PRO-2026        NJM-3359D-A     IC-7      10
PRO-2027        MC-3361N        IC-2       9
PRO-2028        NJM-3359D-A     IC-2      10
PRO-2030        NJM-3359D-A     IC-3      10
PRO-2032	MC-3361         IC-2       9 (TP5)
PRO-2035 NFM/AM TK-10420        IC-2       9 (TP2)
PRO-2035 WFM    KA2243N/HA12413 IC-1      10 (TP1)
PRO-2040        MC3361BP        IC-2       9
PRO-2041        MC3361N         IC-301     9  *
PRO-2042 NFM/AM TK-10420        IC-2       9 (TP2)
PRO-2042 WFM    KA2243N/HA12413 IC-1      10 (TP1)
PRO-2050        MC3361CDR2      IC-2       9  *
PRO-23          MC-3361BD       IC-1       9
PRO-26 NFM/AM   TK-10930V       IC-14     12-NFM 13-AM
PRO-26 WFM      TK-10489M       IC-16     11
PRO-31          TK-10420        IC-1       9
PRO-32          TK-10420        IC-101     9
PRO-34          TK-10420        IC-101     9
PRO-35          TK-10421M-2     IC-401    11
PRO-36          TK-10420        IC-101     9
PRO-37          TK-10420        IC-101     9 (TP103)
PRO-38          MC-3359P        IC-1      10
PRO-39          MC-3361N        IC-201     9
PRO-41          MC-3359P        IC-1      10
PRO-42          MC-3361N        IC-2       9
PRO-43          TK-10427/-10420 IC-301     9
PRO-44          MC-3361N        IC-201     9
PRO-46          TK-10421M-3LT   IC-401    11
PRO-49          MC3361BP        IC-2       9
PRO-51          MC-3361BD       IC-1       9
PRO-60          ?               IC-301     9
PRO-62          KA3361          IC-301     9  *
PRO-64          MC3361N         IC-301     9
PRO-66          MC3361N         IC-2       9 (TP3) *
PRO-90          MC3361CDR2      IC-2       9
Icom R-1 NFM	TK-10487  DET-A IC-1	  11
Icom R-1 WFM	TA-7787AF DET-B IC-1	   9
Icom R7100	Said to be "top of R230 on main PCB"  *
R-1600          NJM-3359D-A     IC-2      10
R-4030          TK-10421M-2     IC-401    11
SR-15           TK-10421D-2     IC-1       9
StandardCCR708A TK-10420D	Q602       9 *
TurboScan 2     3130-6056-502   U-201     10 or 16
WiNRADiO  NFM   MC-3372D        U2         9 TP20
WiNRADiO AM/WFM TA-7640AP       U5         9 TP29
WiNRADiO  SSB   LM324M          U6         1
Yaesu FRG-9600  MC-3357P        ?          9 *

     TABLE 2
CHIP         PIN
=========   ======
KA3361         9
MC13371        9
MC3357P        9
MC3359P       10
MC3361         9
MC3372D        9
MPS5071        9
NJM3359DA     10
TA7640AP       9
TA7761P        9
TA7787AF       9
TA7792F        8
TK10420        9
TK10421D       9
TK10421M      11
TK10427        9
TK10485M      11
TK10487       11
TK10489M      11
TK10930V      12
HA12413        9 WFM Only
KA2243N        9 WFM Only
KB4419A        6 WFM Only

Once you locate the discriminator in your scanner, you have to
make its output conveniently available on the exterior chassis,
much like a headphone or tape recorder jack.

Figure 1 below shows how to determine the pin numbering system
for most integrated circuits.  Looking at the marking side of
the chip, there is either a notch or nook at one end, and/or an
embedded "dot" off to one side at one end.  The notch, nook, or
dot signifies the end that starts with Pin #1 and ends with
whatever the highest numbered pin happens to be.  Most IC's have
8, 14, 16, or 18 pins.

                FIGURE 1

          14 13 12 11 10  9  8
           |  |  |  |  |  |  |
         |                     |
         |        TOP VIEW     |
  Notch  \          LABEL      |
         /  Dot     SIDE       |
         | O                   |
         |                     |
           |  |  |  |  |  |  |
           1  2  3  4  5  6  7

Pages (6): [ «    1  2  3  4  5  6    »]

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